what are the beginning sighns of parkin disease

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    Parkinson's disease (PD also known as idiopathic or primary parkinsonism, hypokinetic rigid syndrome/HRS, or paralysis agitans) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. The motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease result from the death of dopamine-generating cells in the substantia nigra, a region of the midbrain; the cause of this cell death is unknown. Early in the course of the disease, the most obvious symptoms are movement-related; these include shaking, rigidity, slowness of movement and difficulty with walking and gait. Later, thinking and behavioral problems may arise, with dementia commonly occurring in the advanced stages of the disease, whereas depression is the most common psychiatric symptom. Other symptoms include sensory, sleep and emotional problems. Parkinson's disease is more common in the elderly, with most cases occurring after the age of 50.
    The main motor symptoms are collectively called parkinsonism, or a "parkinsonian syndrome". Parkinson's disease is often defined as a parkinsonian syndrome that is idiopathic (having no known cause), although some atypical cases have a genetic origin. Many risk and protective factors have been investigated: the clearest evidence is for an increased risk of PD in people exposed to certain pesticides and a reduced risk in tobacco smokers. The pathology of the disease is characterized by the accumulation of a protein called alpha-synuclein into inclusions called Lewy bodies in neurons, and from insufficient formation and activity of dopamine produced in certain neurons within parts of the midbrain. Lewy bodies are the pathological hallmark of the idiopathic disorder, and the distribution of the Lewy bodies throughout the Parkinsonian brain varies from one individual to another. The anatomical distribution of the Lewy bodies is often directly related to the expression and degree of the clinical symptoms of each individual. Diagnosis of typical cases is mainly based on symptoms, with tests such as neuroimaging being used for confirmation.
    Modern treatments are effective at managing the early motor symptoms of the disease, mainly through the use of levodopa and dopamine agonists. As the disease progresses and dopaminergic neurons continue to be lost, these drugs eventually become ineffective at treating the symptoms and at the same time produce a complication called dyskinesia, marked by involuntary writhing movements. Diet and some forms of rehabilitation have shown some effectiveness at alleviating symptoms. Surgery and deep brain stimulation have been used to reduce motor symptoms as a last resort in severe cases where drugs are ineffective. Research directions include investigations into new animal models of the disease and of the potential usefulness of gene therapy, stem cell transplants and neuroprotective agents. Medications to treat non-movement-related symptoms of PD, such as sleep disturbances and emotional problems, also exist.
    The disease is named after the English doctor James Parkinson, who published the first detailed description in An Essay on the Shaking Palsy in 1817. Several major organizations promote research and improvement of quality of life of those with the disease and their families. Public awareness campaigns include Parkinson's disease day (on the birthday of James Parkinson, April 11) and the use of a red tulip as the symbol of the disease. People with parkinsonism who have increased the public's awareness include actor Michael J. Fox, Olympic cyclist Davis Phinney and professional boxer Muhammad Ali.


    One of my uncles was a Parkinson's sufferer in the early 1970's. He had an experimental surgery which could have reduced the tremors, but it was unsuccessful.
    My aunt (other side of the family), has had quite a bit of shaking in one hand recently, but medical tests ruled out Parkinson's at this time.

    PKB, my cousin, Margot, has had shaking in just one hand,her R hand, and she's R handed ! She got some tests and the docs said it's parkinsons.Hope it doesn't go any farther than that. she's 10 yrs. older than me.
    Mohammed Ali has not a true parkinsons, but parkinsonian like symtoms, b/c of all the bashing he took on the head and face.
    My mom's brother had " sleeping sickness" acquired from the 1918 flu. He had parkinsonian- like symptoms . He died at 31
    :-( His parents had taken care of him :-(
    The real name of sleeping sickness is encephalopathy

    It started last year in my cousin's right hand and wrist..And she's right handed !  It was the only thing that had a tremor. Now, she has to have someone else write out her checks and greeting cards for her, etc. It's sad. By now, she may have other symtoms. I haven't seen her b/c she lives so far away, but my bro went up to see her. He's supposed to call me to tell me how she is . But, in his typical fashion, he hasn't called. His wife never calls me either    :- 0   


    Call him, or call your cousin directly, mcm

    PKB,Yes,I think I'll call her.Thx, for the encouragement.When, I call my bro, his wife thinks up an excuse why I can't talk to him. When I realized that, about 5 yrs. ago, I quit calling him. He's the only family I've got :-|

    Good luck connecting with him. Maybe you could suggest to your sister-in-law that if your brother wants to tell you he can't talk, you'll stop calling. Let him be the spokesman for himself. I can't stand people who do what she's doing.

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