What causes hiccups?

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    The most common triggers for short-term hiccups include:

    • Eating too much

    • Drinking carbonated beverages

    • Drinking too much alcohol

    • Sudden temperature changes

    • Excitement or emotional stress

    Hiccups that last more than 48 hours may be caused by a variety of factors, which are generally grouped into the following categories:

    Nerve damage or irritation 
    The most common cause of long-term hiccups is damage or irritation of the vagus nerves or phrenic nerves, which serve the diaphragm muscle. Factors that may cause damage or irritation to these nerves include:

    • A hair or something else in your ear touching your eardrum

    • Sore throat or laryngitis

    • A tumor, cyst or goiter in your neck

    • Gastroesophageal reflux

    Central nervous system disorders 
    A tumor or infection in your central nervous system or damage to your central nervous system as a result of trauma can disrupt your body's normal control of the hiccup reflex. Examples include:

    • Stroke

    • Multiple sclerosis

    • Tumors

    • Meningitis

    • Encephalitis

    • Traumatic brain injury

    Metabolic disorders and drugs 
    Long-term hiccups can be triggered by:

    • Alcoholism

    • Anesthesia

    • Barbiturates

    • Diabetes

    • Electrolyte imbalance

    • Kidney failure

    • Steroids

    • Tranquilizers

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