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Answers: 38697
Batsman,Batswoman,Batsperson.?????????
Answers: 6 Views: 130 Rating: 4 Posted: 1 day ago

In bat, on bat, at bat, batting, the person batting, doesn't matter to me, batsperson is just silly.

Rating: 6 Posted: 1 day ago
What's the most important era of american history?
Answers: 3 Views: 199 Rating: 0 Posted: 5 years ago

Railways...

Rating: 3 Posted: 1 day ago
What is the automobile manufacturers legal responsibility to ensure that their vegicles comply with US emission control standards?
Answers: 2 Views: 165 Rating: 0 Posted: 5 years ago

 

Regulatory Authorities

Federal Standards. US federal emission standards for engines and vehicles, including emission standards for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, are established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The EPA authority to regulate engine emissions—and the air quality in general—is based on the Clean Air Act (CAA), most recently amended in 1990.

Fuel economy standards are developed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), an agency within the US Department of Transportation (DOT).

The development of engine emission standards occurs according to the procedures of the US rulemaking process. New regulations are first published as proposed rules. Following a period of public discussion, the new rule is finalized and signed into law. New regulatory proposals and regulations are published in the Federal Register. Consolidated regulations become a part of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR).

California Standards. The State of California has the right to adopt its own emission regulations, which are often more stringent than the federal rules. Engine and vehicle emission regulations are adopted by the California Air Resources Board (ARB), a regulatory body within the California EPA.

California is the only state vested with the authority to develop its own emission regulations. Other states have a choice to either implement the federal emission standards, or else to adopt California requirements (CAA section 177).

Regulated Engines and Vehicles

Emission Standards for New Engines and Vehicles

The following categories of new engines and/or vehicles are subject to emission standards in the USA:

GHG & Fuel Economy

Fuel economy in new light-duty vehicles has been regulated since the 1970’s by CAFE standards administered by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), an agency within the Department of Transportation (DOT).

The first greenhouse gas regulations for motor vehicles were adopted in 2002 in California. At the federal level, GHG emission standards and harmonized CAFE legislation for light-duty vehicles were adopted in joint regulatory actions by the EPA and the NHSTA in 2010 and 2012. GHG/fuel economy regulation for heavy-duty trucks was adopted in 2011.

On-Board Diagnostics (OBD)

On-Board Diagnostic requirements—California and federal—apply to light-duty vehicles, as well as to increasing number of categories of heavy-duty engines. OBD regulations ensure compliance with emission standards by setting requirements to monitor selected emission system components (e.g., catalytic converters) or in-use emission levels, and to alert the driver/operator—such as by a dashboard-mounted malfunction indicator light—when a problem is detected.

In-Use Engine Regulations

In addition to new engine emission regulations, there is a growing number of programs—mandatory or incentive-based—to reduce emissions from in-use diesel engines. These initiatives are being implemented by all levels of government: federal, state, and local. We provide an overview of the following diesel programs:

Vehicle Weight Classes

Some of the commonly used US vehicle weight classifications are summarized in the following tables.

Table 1
Vehicle weight classifications by the US FHA and US Census Bureau
Gross vehicle weight rating (lbs)Federal Highway AdministrationUS Census Bureau
Vehicle ClassGVWR CategoryVIUS Classes
≤ 6,000 Class 1: ≤ 6,000 lbs Light Duty ≤ 10,000 lbs Light Duty ≤ 10,000 lbs
10,000 Class 2: 6,001-10,000 lbs
14,000 Class 3: 10,001-14,000 lbs Medium Duty 10,001-26,000 lbs Medium Duty 10,001-19,500 lbs
16,000 Class 4: 14,001-16,000 lbs
19,500 Class 5: 16,001-19,500 lbs
26,000 Class 6: 19,501-26,000 lbs Light Heavy Duty 19,501-26,000 lbs
33,000 Class 7: 26,001-33,000 lbs Heavy Duty ≥ 26,001 lbs Heavy Duty ≥ 26,001 lbs
> 33,000 Class 8: > 33,000 lbs
Table 2
Vehicle weight classifications by the US EPA
Gross vehicle weight rating (lbs)EPA Emissions Classifications
Heavy Duty Vehicles and EnginesLight Duty Vehicles
HD TrucksHD EnginesGeneral trucksPassenger Vehicles
≤ 6,000 Light Duty Trucks 1 & 2: ≤ 6,000 lbs Light Light Duty Trucks: ≤ 6,000 lbs Light Duty Trucks ≤ 8,500 lbs Light Duty Vehicles ≤ 8,500 lbs
8,500 Light Duty Trucks 3 & 4: 6,001-8,500 lbs Heavy Light Duty Trucks: 6,001-8,500 lbs
10,000 Heavy Duty Vehicle 2b: 8,501-10,000 lbs Light Heavy Duty Engines: 8,501-19,500 lbs Heavy Duty Vehicle
Heavy Duty Engine
≥ 8,500 lbs
Medium Duty Passenger Vehicles 8,501-10,000 lbs
14,000 Heavy Duty Vehicle 3: 10,001-14,000 lbs  
16,000 Heavy Duty Vehicle 4: 14,001-16,000 lbs
19,500 Heavy Duty Vehicle 5: 16,001-19,500 lbs
26,000 Heavy Duty Vehicle 6: 19,501-26,000 lbs Medium Heavy Duty Engines: 19,501-33,000 lbs
33,000 Heavy Duty Vehicle 7: 26,001-33,000 lbs
60,000 Heavy Duty Vehicle 8a: 33,001-60,000 lbs Heavy Heavy Duty Engines
Urban Bus:
≥ 33,001 lbs
> 60,000 Heavy Duty Vehicle 8b: ≥ 60,001 lbs

Auxiliary Emission Control Devices and Defeat Devices

Under some operating conditions, components of the emission control system can be shut-off or deactivated. This is usually done for reasons including: ensuring engine start-up, protection of the vehicle against damage or accident and preventing the unwanted shut-down of emergency vehicles or equipment. Deactivating components of the emission control system is carried out using what is called an Auxiliary Emission Control Device (AECD). EPA regulations define an AECD as:

any element of design which senses temperature, vehicle speed, engine RPM, transmission gear, manifold vacuum, or any other parameter for the purpose of activating, modulating, delaying, or deactivating the operation of any part of the emission control system.

The EPA definition for emission control system covers all components that are used to control emissions including: aftertreatment devices, engine modifications, sensors, actuators, EGR system and so on.

defeat device is an AECD that reduces the effectiveness of the emission control system under conditions which may reasonably be expected to be encountered in normal vehicle operation and use. Defeat devices are prohibited. In order for manufacturers to certify their vehicles and engines, during the application for certification, they must submit a list of AECDs, justify their use, explain how they work and demonstrate that the AECDs are not defeat devices.

While there are some differences, the definitions of AECD, emission control system and defeat device as well their approval is relatively consistent for light-, medium- and heavy-duty vehicles and engines as well as nonroad engines.

https://www.dieselnet.com/standards/us/

 

Rating: 3 Posted: 3 days ago
Which presidents vacations cost the most bush or obama
Answers: 1 Views: 356 Rating: 0 Posted: 4 days ago

Money is no object, read here...http://samuel-warde.com/2016/01/hey-conservatives-lets-compare-obama-and-bush-vacations/

Rating: 3 Posted: 3 days ago
Who's your favourite star?
Answers: 6 Views: 473 Rating: 5 Posted: 10 days ago

Idris Elba, watch out, you'll all know about him soon....

Rating: 5 Posted: 4 days ago
what was the chief ideas of Marxism?
Answers: 1 Views: 155 Rating: 0 Posted: 5 years ago

Karl Marx's main ideas are labour theory of value, class struggle, alienation, and communism. He is the co-founder of Marxism and has published many books, the two most famous being "Das Kapital" and "The Communist Manifesto."

Rating: 4 Posted: 4 days ago
italian meaning for Bella Viesta
Answers: 1 Views: 244 Rating: 0 Posted: 5 years ago

"beautiful view"?

Rating: 1 Posted: 4 days ago
directions from long island to wildwood nj
Answers: 1 Views: 184 Rating: 0 Posted: 5 years ago

4 h 31 min (211.2 mivia Garden State Pkwy

Directions
 
Long Island
 
Head west
 
118 ft
 
Turn left towards NY-454 W
 
466 ft
 
Turn right onto NY-454 W
 
3.3 mi
 
Turn left onto Expy Drive N/Long Island Expressway North Service Rd
 
0.5 mi
 
Merge onto I-495 W via the slip road on the left to New York
 
0.1 mi
 
Merge onto I-495 W
 
30.1 mi
 
Take exit 31 N-S for Cross Island Parkway towards Whitestone Bridge/Kennedy Airport
 
0.2 mi
 
Keep right at the fork to continue on Exit 31 N, follow signs for Cross Island Pkwy N/Whitestone Br and merge onto Cross Island Pkwy
 
3.4 mi
 
Take exit 33 for Interstate 295/Throgs Neck Br towards Bronx/New England
Toll road
 
0.4 mi
 
Merge onto I-295 N
Toll road
 
2.2 mi
 
Keep left to stay on I-295 N
Partial toll road
 
0.3 mi
 
Keep left at the fork to stay on I-295 N, follow signs for Interstate 295 N/Interstate 95 S/Cross Bronx Expwy/Geo Washington Br
 
1.3 mi
 
Keep left to continue on Cross Bronx Expy, follow signs for Interstate 95 S/G Washington Br/Newark NJ
 
0.6 mi
 
Continue onto I-95 S
 
4.6 mi
 
Keep right at the fork to continue on Interstate 95 Lower Level S/U.S. 1 Lower Level S, follow signs for Interstate 95 S/US 1 S/G W Bridge Lower Level
Entering New Jersey
 
2.4 mi
 
Continue onto I-95/Interstate 95 Lower Level S
Partial toll road
 
0.2 mi
 
Keep right to continue on I-95 S, follow signs for I-80/Hackensack
 
2.5 mi
 
Keep left at the fork to stay on I-95 S, follow signs for Interstate 95 S/US 46/Newark/New Jersey Turnpike S
Partial toll road
 
2.4 mi
 
Keep right at the fork to stay on I-95 S, follow signs for Lincoln Tunnel
Partial toll road
 
5.2 mi
 
Keep left to stay on I-95 S
Partial toll road
 
5.3 mi
 
Keep left to stay on I-95 S
Toll road
 
14.9 mi
 
Take exit 11 for U.S. 9 towards Woodbridge
Toll road
 
1.9 mi
 
Merge onto Garden State Pkwy
Toll road
 
3.2 mi
 
Keep left at the fork to stay on Garden State Pkwy
Toll road
 
0.7 mi
 
Keep left at the fork to stay on Garden State Pkwy, follow signs for 117, 105/Asbury Park/South Jersey
Partial toll road
 
40.4 mi
 
Keep left to stay on Garden State Pkwy
Toll road
 
0.9 mi
 
Continue onto U.S. 9 S/Garden State Pkwy
 
3.1 mi
 
Continue onto Garden State Pkwy
Partial toll road
 
30.2 mi
 
Continue onto U.S. 9 S/Garden State Pkwy
 
2.2 mi
 
Continue onto Garden State Pkwy
Partial toll road
 
44.5 mi
 
Take exit 4A to merge onto NJ-47 S
 
0.2 mi
 
Merge onto NJ-47 S
 
1.1 mi
 
Continue straight to stay on NJ-47 S
 
1.7 mi
 
Turn left onto Park Blvd
 
0.7 mi
 
Turn right onto W Wildwood Ave
 
0.2 mi
 
Wildwood, New Jersey, USA
These directions are for planning purposes only. You may find that construction projects, traffic, weather or other events may cause conditions to differ from the map results, and you should plan your route accordingly. You must obey all signs or notices regarding your route.

 

Rating: 1 Posted: 4 days ago
what is the distance in rail miles between glasgow and torquay
Answers: 1 Views: 185 Rating: 0 Posted: 5 years ago

Glasgow, Scotland Great Britain (UK) to Torquay Great Britain (UK) is 378 miles or 608.2 Kilometers.

Rating: 1 Posted: 4 days ago
Two lonely people_____________.
Answers: 6 Views: 543 Rating: 5 Posted: 5 days ago

Rating: 7 Posted: 4 days ago

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