In bat, on bat, at bat, batting, the person batting, doesn't matter to me, batsperson is just silly.
Federal Standards. US federal emission standards for engines and vehicles, including emission standards for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, are established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The EPA authority to regulate engine emissions—and the air quality in general—is based on the Clean Air Act (CAA), most recently amended in 1990.
Fuel economy standards are developed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), an agency within the US Department of Transportation (DOT).
The development of engine emission standards occurs according to the procedures of the US rulemaking process. New regulations are first published as proposed rules. Following a period of public discussion, the new rule is finalized and signed into law. New regulatory proposals and regulations are published in the Federal Register. Consolidated regulations become a part of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR).
California Standards. The State of California has the right to adopt its own emission regulations, which are often more stringent than the federal rules. Engine and vehicle emission regulations are adopted by the California Air Resources Board (ARB), a regulatory body within the California EPA.
California is the only state vested with the authority to develop its own emission regulations. Other states have a choice to either implement the federal emission standards, or else to adopt California requirements (CAA section 177).
Regulated Engines and Vehicles
Emission Standards for New Engines and Vehicles
The following categories of new engines and/or vehicles are subject to emission standards in the USA:
- Cars and Light Trucks: Tier 1 | Tier 2 | Tier 3 | California
- Heavy-Duty Truck and Bus Engines
- Mobile Nonroad Diesel Engines
- Railway Locomotives
- Marine Engines
- Small spark ignited (SSI) engines (≤ 19 kW)
- Large spark ignited (LSI) engines (> 19 kW)
- Stationary Engines: SI NSPS | CI NSPS | NESHAP
GHG & Fuel Economy
Fuel economy in new light-duty vehicles has been regulated since the 1970’s by CAFE standards administered by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), an agency within the Department of Transportation (DOT).
The first greenhouse gas regulations for motor vehicles were adopted in 2002 in California. At the federal level, GHG emission standards and harmonized CAFE legislation for light-duty vehicles were adopted in joint regulatory actions by the EPA and the NHSTA in 2010 and 2012. GHG/fuel economy regulation for heavy-duty trucks was adopted in 2011.
On-Board Diagnostics (OBD)
On-Board Diagnostic requirements—California and federal—apply to light-duty vehicles, as well as to increasing number of categories of heavy-duty engines. OBD regulations ensure compliance with emission standards by setting requirements to monitor selected emission system components (e.g., catalytic converters) or in-use emission levels, and to alert the driver/operator—such as by a dashboard-mounted malfunction indicator light—when a problem is detected.
In-Use Engine Regulations
In addition to new engine emission regulations, there is a growing number of programs—mandatory or incentive-based—to reduce emissions from in-use diesel engines. These initiatives are being implemented by all levels of government: federal, state, and local. We provide an overview of the following diesel programs:
Vehicle Weight Classes
Some of the commonly used US vehicle weight classifications are summarized in the following tables.
|Gross vehicle weight rating (lbs)||Federal Highway Administration||US Census Bureau|
|Vehicle Class||GVWR Category||VIUS Classes|
|≤ 6,000||Class 1: ≤ 6,000 lbs||Light Duty ≤ 10,000 lbs||Light Duty ≤ 10,000 lbs|
|10,000||Class 2: 6,001-10,000 lbs|
|14,000||Class 3: 10,001-14,000 lbs||Medium Duty 10,001-26,000 lbs||Medium Duty 10,001-19,500 lbs|
|16,000||Class 4: 14,001-16,000 lbs|
|19,500||Class 5: 16,001-19,500 lbs|
|26,000||Class 6: 19,501-26,000 lbs||Light Heavy Duty 19,501-26,000 lbs|
|33,000||Class 7: 26,001-33,000 lbs||Heavy Duty ≥ 26,001 lbs||Heavy Duty ≥ 26,001 lbs|
|> 33,000||Class 8: > 33,000 lbs|
|Gross vehicle weight rating (lbs)||EPA Emissions Classifications|
|Heavy Duty Vehicles and Engines||Light Duty Vehicles|
|HD Trucks||HD Engines||General trucks||Passenger Vehicles|
|≤ 6,000||Light Duty Trucks 1 & 2: ≤ 6,000 lbs||Light Light Duty Trucks: ≤ 6,000 lbs||Light Duty Trucks ≤ 8,500 lbs||Light Duty Vehicles ≤ 8,500 lbs|
|8,500||Light Duty Trucks 3 & 4: 6,001-8,500 lbs||Heavy Light Duty Trucks: 6,001-8,500 lbs|
|10,000||Heavy Duty Vehicle 2b: 8,501-10,000 lbs||Light Heavy Duty Engines: 8,501-19,500 lbs||Heavy Duty Vehicle
Heavy Duty Engine
≥ 8,500 lbs
|Medium Duty Passenger Vehicles 8,501-10,000 lbs|
|14,000||Heavy Duty Vehicle 3: 10,001-14,000 lbs|
|16,000||Heavy Duty Vehicle 4: 14,001-16,000 lbs|
|19,500||Heavy Duty Vehicle 5: 16,001-19,500 lbs|
|26,000||Heavy Duty Vehicle 6: 19,501-26,000 lbs||Medium Heavy Duty Engines: 19,501-33,000 lbs|
|33,000||Heavy Duty Vehicle 7: 26,001-33,000 lbs|
|60,000||Heavy Duty Vehicle 8a: 33,001-60,000 lbs||Heavy Heavy Duty Engines
≥ 33,001 lbs
|> 60,000||Heavy Duty Vehicle 8b: ≥ 60,001 lbs|
Auxiliary Emission Control Devices and Defeat Devices
Under some operating conditions, components of the emission control system can be shut-off or deactivated. This is usually done for reasons including: ensuring engine start-up, protection of the vehicle against damage or accident and preventing the unwanted shut-down of emergency vehicles or equipment. Deactivating components of the emission control system is carried out using what is called an Auxiliary Emission Control Device (AECD). EPA regulations define an AECD as:
any element of design which senses temperature, vehicle speed, engine RPM, transmission gear, manifold vacuum, or any other parameter for the purpose of activating, modulating, delaying, or deactivating the operation of any part of the emission control system.
The EPA definition for emission control system covers all components that are used to control emissions including: aftertreatment devices, engine modifications, sensors, actuators, EGR system and so on.
A defeat device is an AECD that reduces the effectiveness of the emission control system under conditions which may reasonably be expected to be encountered in normal vehicle operation and use. Defeat devices are prohibited. In order for manufacturers to certify their vehicles and engines, during the application for certification, they must submit a list of AECDs, justify their use, explain how they work and demonstrate that the AECDs are not defeat devices.
While there are some differences, the definitions of AECD, emission control system and defeat device as well their approval is relatively consistent for light-, medium- and heavy-duty vehicles and engines as well as nonroad engines.
Money is no object, read here...http://samuel-warde.com/2016/01/hey-conservatives-lets-compare-obama-and-bush-vacations/
Idris Elba, watch out, you'll all know about him soon....
Karl Marx's main ideas are labour theory of value, class struggle, alienation, and communism. He is the co-founder of Marxism and has published many books, the two most famous being "Das Kapital" and "The Communist Manifesto."
4 h 31 min (211.2 mi) via Garden State Pkwy
Glasgow, Scotland Great Britain (UK) to Torquay Great Britain (UK) is 378 miles or 608.2 Kilometers.
A wee dance for MCM on her B/Day.
KOTF sends his congratulations on your birthday.
Well deserved congratulations G.
KOTF and the fleamily salute you mate.
He's a big boy P, time to stop worrying (I know you wont).
Let him do what he needs to do.
My thoughts are with them Bob, they,ll overcome their sorrow and find happier times ahead.
I was a milk boy from age 11, my first wage was 18 shillings a week which is the equivalent of less than £1, that was for seven mornings a week , 4am till 8am, went to school, after school was collection time,1hr every night, loved every single minute of it, gave me the work ethic I have today, wish I could go back to simpler times, know it,s not possible, but hey ho, life goes on.
I think this backs up what Colleen said, is this some sort of challenge? I personally don,t give a flying fig about KARMA, I like this site for what it is, a friendly place to spend some spare time and assist some people who may need assistance, some people here might get an ego trip from it , but we,re all different Sawali, if you want to get something from a site like this you must put something in, I know for sure the moderaters do, DO YOU?
Weird? 1>>>10? King of the Fleas is pondering his answer. No , sorry, I think everything,s completely normal here...KOTF.
Which category do you belong to, the infantile or the clown?
Sorry J, this page wouldn,t be big enough for the list. If you listen to fish fry washing my underwear is not on this list...lol..KOTF.